Abstract: Chao-she and Yi-she were two poetry clubs of the Qing loyalists in the Shanghai concession during the period of the Republic of China. These poets were loyal to the Qing Dynasty and rejected the Republic, and participated in a lot of political events, such as the subversion of Yuan Shikai, the restoration of Xuantong, and the establishment of Manchukuo. They were cultural conservatives, admired the ancients, protected the tradition, and participated in a series of cultural projects. They advocated Song poetry, advocated Tongguang style, and implicitly competed with the New Literature. Their ideological tendency is generally conservative, but also contains a lot of modern factors. Being“musty”but“nutritious”, they made great contributions to the cultural ecology of Modern China in a tortuous way.
The Chinese version appeared in Social Sciences in Yunnan, 2022,(02).